Requirements to the preparation of reference lists

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1.   References in the list are written in alphabetic order.

2.   All references must be numbered, and each number in the list should correspond only to one reference.

3.   Authors should prepare TWO reference lists:

According to the State Standard 7.1: 2006 [Bibliographic recording. Bibliographic description. General requirements and rules of preparation (State Standard 7.1-2003, IDT)]. - М.: [State Standard of the Ukraine], 2007.

-  According to the recommendations and standards of SCOPUS.


Examples of preparation of reference list according to the State Standard: 

- Shin J. Molecular mechanisms in therapy of acid-related diseases / J. Shin, O. Vagin, K. Munson [et al.] // Cell and molecular life sciences. – 2008. – Vol. 65, N 2. – P.264-281. Available from:

-  Dvorshchenko K.O. [Effect of oxidative stress on the level of TGF-β and HGF genes expression in rat liver upon long-term gastric hypochlorhydria and administration of multiprobiotic Symbiter] / K.O. Dvorshchenko, O.O. Bernyk, A.S. Dranitsina [et al.] // Ukrainian Biochemical Journal. - 2013. - Vol. 85, №5. - P. 114-123.

-  Shmalgauzen I. I. [Ways and principles of evolutionary process] / I. I. Shmalgauzen. – M. ; L. : Publishing House AS USSR, 1939. – 232 p.

-  Savko U. V. [Biochemical mechanisms of rat duodenal epitheliocytes damage upon long-term suppression of gastric acid secretion]: autoabstract of PhD thesis: 03.00.04 / Savko Uliana Viktorivna; Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. – K., 2014. – 20 p.


Example of reference list preparation according to recommendations and standards of SCOPUS.

-  Rose ME, Huerbin MB, Melick J, Marion DW, Palmer AM, Schiding JK, et al. Regulation of interstitial excitatory amino acid concentrations after cortical contusion injury. Brain Res. 2002;935(1-2):40-6.

-  Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(4):284-7.

-  Geraud G, Spierings EL, Keywood C. Tolerability and safety of frovatriptan with short- and long-term use for treatment of migraine and in comparison with sumatriptan. Headache. 2002;42 Suppl 2:S93-9.

-  Glauser TA. Integrating clinical trial data into clinical practice. Neurology. 2002;58(12 Suppl 7):S6-12.

It is allowed to add distinct identification number of the database in the end of a reference; for example:

-  Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7. PubMed PMID: 12140307.

-  Forooghian F, Yeh S, Faia LJ, Nussenblatt RB. Uveitic foveal atrophy: clinical features and associations. Arch Ophthalmol. 2009 Feb;127(2):179-86. PubMed PMID: 19204236; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2653214.

a) English article in a scientific journal

Surname of authors, titles of article journals are subjected to transliteration and are written in Latin letters. Original language of an article is indicated in the end of a reference. For example:

-  Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. Sykdomsangst blant medisinog jusstudenter. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.

If non-English article has also English title, it can be used instead of transliteration; it is also allowed to make your own translation of the title into English. Such titles are written in square brackets:

-  Ellingsen AE, Wilhelmsen I. [Disease anxiety among medical students and law students]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2002 Mar 20;122(8):785-7. Norwegian.

b) Electronic articles

An example of preparation of electronic article that has digital object identifier (DOI):

-  Zhang M, Holman CD, Price SD, Sanfilippo FM, Preen DB, Bulsara MK. Comorbidity and repeat admission to hospital for adverse drug reactions in older adults: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2009;338:a2752. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2752

An example of preparation of electronic article that has a distinct identifier in a database instead of DOI:

-  Tegnell A, Dillner J, Andrae B. Introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Sweden. Euro Surveill. 2009 Feb 12;14(6). pii: 19119. PubMed PMID: 19215721.

c) Article that is published at the moment

References are prepared according to the abovementioned scheme, but instead of number and pages the word «Forthcoming» is written. For example:

-  Tian D, Araki H, Stahl E, Bergelson J, Kreitman M. Signature of balancing selection in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Forthcoming 2002.

In the case of electronic article that is subjected to publishing, a reference is written as follows:

-  Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828-31. Epub 2002 Jul 5.

d) Preparation of references to scientific reports and conference materials

1. Conference materials / Abstract books

If the abstract book has general editors, their surnames and initials are written at the beginning, then following data are indicated: conference title, conference date, city and country, publishing house, date of issue. For example:

-  Harnden P, Joffe JK, Jones WG, editors. Germ cell tumours V. Proceedings of the 5th Germ Cell Tumour Conference; 2001 Sep 13-15; Leeds, UK. New York: Springer; 2002.

2. Scientific report at the conference

Following data are indicated: authors, title of the report, and basic data of the issue, in which the report is published. For example:

-  Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.

e) Preparation of references to books, monographs and dissertations

1. Books and monographs without general editors

Such data are indicated: surnames and initials of the first six authors, title of a book (monograph), number of the issue, place of issue, publishing house, year of issue, and number of pages (optionally).

-  Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

An example of preparation of reference to a book written by an organization:

-  Advanced Life Support Group. Acute medical emergencies: the practical approach. London: BMJ Books; 2001. 454 p.

2. Books and monographs with general editors

Such data are indicated: surnames and initials of the first six editors (compilers), title of a book (monograph), number of the issue, place of issue, publishing house, year of issue, and number of pages.

-  Gilstrap LC 3rd, Cunningham FG, VanDorsten JP, editors. Operative obstetrics. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

If the book has not only editors, but also authors, a reference is written as follows:

-  Breedlove GK, Schorfheide AM. Adolescent pregnancy. 2nd ed. Wieczorek RR, editor. White Plains (NY): March of Dimes Education Services; 2001.

3. Book chapter

Such data are indicated: surnames and initials of authors, chapter title, basic data of the book according to the abovementioned scheme. For example:

-  Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

4. Dissertation

Such data are indicated: surnames and initials of the author, dissertation titel, a word «dissertation» in square brackets, city, institution, year. For example:

- Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

- Torgalo EO. Biohimicheskie mehanizmy deystviya kvertsetina v usloviyah eksperimentalnogo gemorragicheskogo insulta [dissertation]. Kyiv: Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv; 2009. Ukrainian.