Analysis of garden snail (Helix aspersa Muller) mucus for the presence of potential effectors of hemostasis system

Y. Kyriachenko, T. Halenova, O. Savchuk
Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv; Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv; Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv


Today, there are many approaches to new drugs development, but none of them can replace the important role of natural products in the discovery and development of drugs. Natural raw materials remain an extremely important source of medicines. A number of biologically active molecules of natural origin have already found a direct medicinal use, while many others can serve as chemical models or templates for the design and synthesis of new pharmaceutical agents. Snail mucus has been attracting the attention of scientists for many years as a source of natural biologically active substances. The components of snail mucus have been repeatedly tested for antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. In this work, the biological effects of components of the mucus of the garden snail Helix aspersa, distributed in Ukraine, were studied. The research results proved the
presence of protein molecules, some of which had a pronounced proteolytic potential with specificity for gelatin, collagen and fibrinogen. When mucus was added to blood plasma, its components initiated the formation of active thrombin, and also prolonged the clotting time of plasma in the coagulation test APTT. In addition, the components of H. aspersa mucus enhanced the effect of platelet aggregation inducer and inhibited their disaggregation. It was proved that the components of H. aspersa mucus had no cytotoxic effect. The obtained results indicate the prospects and importance of further experiments on the study of mucus protein fractions in order to identify individual biologically active molecules responsible for the manifestation of these effects. A detailed analysis of the composition and study of the properties of snail mucus will serve as a basis for obtaining potentially new substances with targeted activities and their further use in various industries, including pharmaceutical.


snail, mucus, proteolytic activity, hemostasis system, plasma coagulation tests, hemolytic activity

Full Text:



Milinsk M.C., das Graças Padre R., Hayashi C., de Oliveira C.C., Visentainer J.V., de Souza N.E., Matsushita M. Effects of feed protein and lipid contents on fatty acid profile of snail (Helix aspersa maxima) meat. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2006; 19(2-3):212-216.

Hämäläinen E.M, Järvinen S. Snails: biology, ecology, and conservation. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publisher's. 2012: 185.

Pitt SJ, Graham MA, Dedi CG, Taylor-Harris PM, Gunn A. Antimicrobial properties of mucus from the brown garden snail Helix aspersa. British Journal of Biomedical Science. 2015 ;72(4):174-81; quiz 208. DOI: 10.1080/09674845.2015.11665749.

Etim, L., Aleruchi, C., Obande, G. Antibacterial Properties of Snail Mucus on Bacteria Isolated from Patients with Wound Infection. Microbiology Research Journal International. 2015; 11(2), 1-9.

Dolashka P, Dolashki A, Velkova L, Stevanovic S, Molin L, Traldi P, et al. Bioactive compounds isolated from garden snails. J Biosci Biotechnol. 2015; SE:147–55.

El Mubarak MA, Lamari FN, Kontoyannis C. Simultaneous determination of allantoin and glycolic acid in snail mucus and cosmetic creams with high performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr A. 2013; 1322:49-53. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2013.10.086.

Velkova L., Nissimova A., Dolashki A., et al. Glycine-rich peptides from Cornu aspersum snail with antibacterial activity. Bul Chem. Com. 2018; 50 (C), 169-175.

Dolashki A., Nissimova A., Daskalova E., Velkova L., Topalova Y., Hristova P., et al. Structure and antibacterial activity of isolated peptides from the mucus of garden snail Cornu aspersum. Bulgarian Chemical Communications C. 2018; 50. doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.23394.38086

Kostadinova N., Voynikov Y., Dolashki A., Krumova E., Abrashev R., Kowalewski D., et al. Antioxidative screening of fractions from the mucus of garden snail Cornu aspersum. Bul. Chem. Com. 2018; 50(C), 176–183.

Ramos-Vasconcelos GR, Hermes-Lima M. Hypometabolism, antioxidant defenses and free radical metabolism in the pulmonate land snail Helix aspersa. J Exp Biol. 2003; 206(Pt 4):675-85. doi: 10.1242/jeb.00124.

Ramos-Vasconcelos GR, Cardoso LA, Hermes-Lima M. Seasonal modulation of free radical metabolism in estivating land snails Helix aspersa. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005;140(2):165-74. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2005.01.015.

Brieva A, Philips N, Tejedor R, Guerrero A, Pivel JP, Alonso-Lebrero JL, Gonzalez S. Molecular basis for the regenerative properties of a secretion of the mollusk Cryptomphalus aspersa. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2008;21(1):15-22. doi: 10.1159/000109084.

Gabriel UI, Mirela S, Ionel J. Quantification of mucoproteins (glycoproteins) from snails mucus, Helix aspersa and Helix Pomatia. J Agroaliment Process Technol. 2011; 17:410–13.

Gus'kov EP, Kletskii ME, Kornienko IV, Olekhnovich LP, Chistyakov VA, Shkurat TP, Prokof'ev VN, Zhdanov Y. Allantoin as a free-radical scavenger. Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2002; 383:105-7. doi: 10.1023/a:1015331601169.

El Ouar I, Braicu C, Naimi D, Irimie A, Berindan-Neagoe I. Effect of Helix aspersa extract on TNFα, NF-κB and some tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer cell line Hs578T. Pharmacogn Mag. 2017;13(50):281-285. doi:10.4103/0973-1296.204618.

Antonova O, Dolashka P, Toncheva D, Rammensee HG, Floetenmeyer M, Stevanovic S. In vitro antiproliferative effect of Helix aspersa hemocyanin on multiple malignant cell lines. Z Naturforsch C J Biosci. 2014;69(7-8):325-334. doi:10.5560/znc.2013-0148

Matusiewicz M, Kosieradzka I, Niemiec T, et al. In Vitro Influence of Extracts from Snail Helix aspersa Müller on the Colon Cancer Cell Line Caco-2. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(4):1064. doi:10.3390/ijms19041064

Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976; 72:248-254. doi:10.1006/abio.1976.9999

Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature. 1970;227(5259):680-685. doi:10.1038/227680a0

Ostapchenko, L., Savchuk, O., Burlova-Vasilieva, N. Enzyme electrophoresis method in analysis of active components of haemostasis system. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology. 2011; 2:20-26. doi: 10.4236/abb.2011.21004.

Kyriachenko Y., Oskyrko O., Udovychenko I., et al. Нemolytic activity of skin secretions of amphibians that inhabit the ukraine territory. Visnyk Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Biology. 2020; 1(80): 6-10.

Halenova Т., Raksha N., Savchuk O., et al. Evaluation of the biocompatibility of water-soluble pristine С60 fullerenes in rabbit. BioNanoScience. 2020.

Received: 04.01.2021

Revised: 01.02.2021

Signed for the press: 01.02.2021



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Лицензия Creative Commons
This journal is available according to the Creative Commons License «Attribution» («Атрибуція») 4.0 Global (CC-BY).