Water exchange parameters of lettuce plants under the action of cadmium ions

I. Khomenko, O. Kosyk, N. Taran
Educational and Scientific Center "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv; Educational and Scientific Center "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv; Educational and Scientific Center "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv


According to the purpose of the work, the effect of cadmium ions on the water exchange parameters in green Lolo and red Lolo Ross varieties of Lactuca sativa L. was investigated. In the experiment one-month plants grown on the medium where 0.1 mM cadmium was added in the sulfate form for fourteen days were used. The investigated parameters included: water deficit index, relative turgescence, free water content, cellular juice concentration, stomatal density and condition, and tolerance index. The weighable, refractometric, microscopic and analytical methods of research were used during the investigation Due to the results, the various plant response to the cadmium ions action in these lettuce varieties was revealed. In particular, the water deficit growth, reduction of the relative turgescence parameter, the free water content and concentration of cellular juice compared with the control level during the exposure was recorded in the green Lolo variety. Whereas, the water deficit decrease, an increase in the parameters of relative turgescence and free water content to the fourteenth day of exposure was noted for the red Lolo Ross variety. And also the absence of a reliable difference in the parameter of the concentration of cell juice. In addition, in both varieties, there was an increase in xeromorphism of the leaf blades, and in particular the stomata density. But in Lolo variety, most were locked in, unlike the Ross variety. According to the characteristics of the water exchange and stomatal analysis, it can be argued about the higher adaptive capacities of the Lolo Ross variety to this stress factor, compared with the Lolo variety.


Cadmium ions, tolerance index, water exchange, stomata, Lactuca sativa L.

Full Text:



Tang X et al. Cadmium uptake in above-ground parts of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2016;125:102– 106. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.11.033

Khan A, Khan S, Khan MA, et al. The uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metals by food plants, their effects on plants nutrients, and associated health risk: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res. 2015;22:13772. doi:10.1007/s11356-015-4881-0

Goncharuk EA, Zagoskina NV. Heavy metals: uptake, toxicity and protective mechanisms in plants (for example of cadmium). Bulletin of Kharkiv national agrarian university named after V.V. Dokuchayev. Biology. 2017;1 (40):35-49. Russian.

Azzi V, Kazpard V, Lartiges B, et al. Trace metals in phosphate fertilizers used in Eastern Mediterranean countries. Clean Air Soil Water. 2017 Jan 13;45(1). Epub Sept 2016. doi:10.1002/clen.201500988

Akhter Fardausi. Cadmium Accumulation and Distribution in Lettuce and Barley. Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository. 2012; paper 756

Zorrig W, El Khouni A, Ghnaya T, Davidian JC, Abdelly Ch, Berthomieu P. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa): a species with a high capacity for cadmium (Cd) accumulation and growth stimulation in the presence of low Cd concentrations. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 2013; 88(6):783-789. doi:10.1080/14620316.2013.11513039

Khomenko I, Kosyk O, Taran N. The influence of cadmium and essential nanometals on the physiological and biochemical parameters of lettuce plants. Visnyk of Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv. Series: biology. 2018; 1(75):37-45.Ukrainian.

Zouari M et al. Exogenous proline mediates alleviation of cadmium stress by promoting photosynthetic activity, water status and antioxidative enzymes activities of young date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2016;128:100–108. doi: 10.1016/ j.ecoenv.2016.02.015

Kosyk OI, Khomenko IM, Batsmanova LM, et al. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and anthocyanin content in different varieties of lettuce under the cadmium influence. The Ukrainian Biochemical Journal. 2017;89(2):85-91. doi:10.15407/ubj89.02.085.

Smirnov OE, Taran NYu, Kosyan AM, et al. Challenging action of low-dose aluminium on physiological condition of Tartary Buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum Gaertn.) plants. The Journal of V.N.Karazin Kharkiv National University. Series: biology. 2014;23:107-116. Ukrainian.

Parshykova T.V. Fiziolohiia roslyn. Praktykum. Lutsk: VMA Teren; 2010. 416 p. Ukrainian.

Semida Wael M, Rady Mostafa M, Abd El-Mageed Taia A, Howladar Saad M, Abdelhamid Magdi T. Alleviation of cadmium toxicity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants by the exogenous application of salicylic acid. The Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology. 2015; 90(1): 83-91, doi: 10.1080/14620316.2015.11513157

Smirnov OE, Kosyan AM, Kosyk OI, Taran N.Yu. Morphophysiological traits of Fagopyrum esculentum in response to aluminium-acid stress. Ukr. Botanical J. 2014; 71 (4): 511-516. Ukrainian.

Fedenko VS, Shemet SA, Struzhko VS. Complexation of cyanidin with cadmium ions in solution. Ukrainian Biochem. J. 2005; 77:104-109. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1461.8647

Rizwan M et al. A critical review on effects, tolerance mechanisms and management of cadmium in vegetables. Chemosphere. 2017; 182:90105. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.05.013

Varun M et al. Effect of cadmium uptake on growth and physiology of water lettuce. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 2017;49(1):102–104. doi: 10.5958/0974-8164.2017.00028.4

Kavulych J, Kobyletska M, Terek O. Influence salicylic acid on content of photosynthetic pigments in plants buckwheat for toxic effects of cadmium chloride. Visnyk of the Lviv University. Series Biology. 2016; 72: 210–217. Ukrainian.

Ovrutska II. Anatomical and morphological characters of leaves of Sium latifolium L. under different growth conditions. Ukr. Botanical J.2012; 69(1):125-133. Ukrainian.

Received in the editorial: 20.08.2018

Received a revised version: 24.09.2018

Signed in the press: 24.09.2018


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Лицензия Creative Commons
This journal is available according to the Creative Commons License «Attribution» («Атрибуція») 4.0 Global (CC-BY).