Viral infections of winter wheat and soybean and their influence on crop yield under climate change conditions

L. Mishchenko, A. Dunich, I. Budzanivska, I. Mishchenko
ESC "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv; ESC "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv; ESC "Institute of Biology and Medicine", Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Kyiv,; National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv

Abstract


Climate changes affect the level of damage from plant diseases, because the environment has a significant impact not only on plants, but also
on pathogens and their vectors. Therefore, studying of the viruses, crop yield and productivity, agroclimatic changes should be in the complex. The
aim of the study was to investigate the viruses affecting winter wheat and soybean plants, their yield in conditions of infection with viruses and
changes in the climatic conditions of the Poltava region. Methods: biometric; crop and its structure; DAS-ELISA, RNA extraction from plant
material, RT-PCR, sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, statistical methods. Results. It is established that Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is the
most widespread and harmful for wheat crop and Soybean mosaic virus (SMV) – for soybean. For the first time in Ukraine, the yield of winter wheat
and soybean plants under conditions of virus damage and changes of climatic conditions in the Poltava region was studied. Correlation between
the HTC (the hydrothermal coefficient of Selyaninov), the damage caused by viral diseases and the productivity of winter wheat and soybean plants
is revealed. It is shown that transgenic soybean Grimo is affected with SMV, which reduce grain yield twice. The molecular genetic properties of the
SMV isolate GRP-17 were studied and it is determined that it has a common origin with Iranian, American, Chinese isolates and isolate from
Ukraine. It has been determined that, the amino acid substitutions in CP gene of GRP-17 are unique compared to sequences of all SMV isolates
taken for the analysis. Conclusions. Analysis of the meteorological data in the agrocenosis was carried out and it was established that the yield of
wheat and soybean crops is closely related to the ratio of precipitation and air temperature (HTC). From these parameters also depended the
frequency of WSMV and SMV detection, because they have a direct impact on insects – vectors of the viruses. The changes in the molecular
genetic level in CP gene of GRP-17 can be involved in the it's harmfulness and ability to infect transgenic soybean plants.


Keywords


WSMV, BYDV, SMV, yield, climate change, hydrothermal coefficient

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Received: 11.02.2018

Revised: 15.03.2018

Signed for publication: 16.03.2018




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17721/1728_2748.2018.75.11-21

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